Outline & Final Essay for POLSC 221
In Dividing Lines, Daniel Tichenor shows that contemporary immigration policy in the U.S. is open to immigration, and that immigrants enjoy many rights including the right to naturalize and become full citizens.
More specifically, Tichenor reasons that “in historical comparison to earlier policy regimes, the immigration controls established from 1980 to 1990 were decidedly expansive for alien admissions and rights,” (2002: 243). Tichenor makes the point to note that the 1990s did include restrictionist policy victories like California’s Proposition 187 and the 1996 IIRAIRA, but he maintains that “the dominance of modern restrictionists in the policymaking process was “short-lived” and their policy victories “modest” (245). Write an essay in which you answer the following question: Do you agree with Tichenor’s assessment of the contemporary policy era, or do you think he underestimated the political power of restrictionists in post-1986 immigration policy & politics? In answering your question (making your argument) you must consider major federal initiatives in the years after IRCA, as well as court rulings on the rights of aliens/ non-citizens, and developments in state and local immigration policies for supporting evidence for your argument. Final Essay (20% of Course Grade) Due on Turnitin.com by 5pm 5/24 • Your final essay should be based on your outline. • It should be 6-8 pages in length.
• Your essay shall include no materials outside of those used in this course.
• All of your support from readings must be fully and correctly cited by author, date and page number. Full citations appear on the syllabus. Lectures may be cited by date given, however lectures should supplement but not replace readings). Since this is a documented essay, improper or incomplete documentation of your sources will adversely affect your grade.
• TURNITIN SUBMISSION of FINAL ESSAY: 1. Submit your completed essay to turnitin.com
2. You must also submit a pdf of your outline gradesheet with my comments on it (this helps me gauge the work you did to address problems with the plan for the final paper).
• LATE PAPERS
1. I consider papers late as per Turnitin.com’s time stamp once submitted after the 5pm deadline.
2. All late papers will be downgraded by a FULL grade per day (and half grade within the 12hr mark) beginning at 5:01 pm.
3. Example, a paper that comes in anytime between 5:01pm on 5/19 and 5pm on 5/20 that scored a B+ could earn no higher than a B/B- and by 5pm could earn no higher than a C+.
Final Paper outline ——-
Thesis: In spite of Tichenor’s assessment of contemporary immigration policy, in which he declares the rights of immigrants “expansive”, it is evident that he highly underestimated the political power of restrictionists during this time period based on United States law and policies.
I. The average day to day life of both undocumented and legal immigrants post-1986 were never easy regardless of status. Immigrants faced many hardships that we would not even think about in our day to day lives. A. Undocumented immigrant workers, however, are not the only vulnerable ones. In the 1990’s, even legal permanent residents and naturalized citizens saw their rights and privileges diminish. (Hogden_Sotelo 2001) B. In 1996 federal welfare reform, particularly the Immigration Reform Act and Individual Responsibility Act (IRAIRA), codified the legal and social disenfranchisement of legal permanent residents and undocumented immigrants. (Hogden_Sotelo 2001) C. The uncertainty that is in the mind of illegal immigrants day in day out prevents them from a normal life on top of all the compromises they had already made. (Hagan 1994)
II. Post 1986, the Clinton administration showed their position on the “issue” of immigration
A. More specifically in 1993 the Clinton administration increased the funding and therefore the budget of the INS in order to “prevent by deference” (Pack,Zou,Mattil 2017)
B. The increased budget also provided higher level of surveillance using electronic devices which made it significantly harder to cross into the country illegally. Which made the apprehension rate rise between 1994-2000. (Pack,Zou,Mattil 2017)
III. Not only did the national government take measures to restrict immigration and their rights, but state governments piled more restrictions and acts of lunacy on top of that. A.The state of Arizona has passed many laws to discourage unauthorised immigrants from entering or staying within its borders, but it was the 2010 adoption of SB 1070 that cemented the state’s reputation as a trend-setter in immigration enforcement. (Provine Sanchez 2011) B. 1997 the Chandler Roundup (Provine Sanchez 2011)
IV. 9/11 was one of the saddest days in US history. The response from the government and the public reaction really demonstrated the close tie between immigrants and their civil rights.
A. Many Arab and Muslim people were stereotyped and rounded up. (Johnson 2004)
B. The United States government employed security measures to a degree that we’ve never seen before. This led to the rights of both non-citizens and eventually citizens to be disrupted. (Johnson 2004)
C. You can even see the drastic reactions that the United States has towards immigrants wether they be non-citizens or full legal citizens as recently as President Trumps travel ban. (Executive Order 2017)
Conclusion: As is evidently shown, restrictionist methods and implementations were largely underestimated by Tichenor. We see different and irrational methods of dealing with problems current to the times; most of which scare, hurt, and are unfair to another human life.